Women in Art History

As so often happens, circumstances necessitated a temporary pause in posts here on the StudioSS blog. Now that summer is here, though, Suzanne is back and dedicating time to her homemade MFA program.

(OK, be prepared for a shift from the 3rd person to the 1st. This is Suzanne writing and if I don’t completely shift, the whole post is going to be a mess of competing POVs).

Khan Academy

I have been working on the Khan Academy Art History program, slowly, and have made it to a unit about Renaissance Art. Every new unit I come to, I just keep thinking….why are people so…UGH. If we could just leave other people’s things alone, things would be so much better. But now, we have to leave our own marks and ransack the cities of cultures we don’t “agree” with.

Anywho.

This post said it was about WOMEN in art history, so, I’m here to start posting about a new art project I’ve started — 50 before 50. My 50th birthday is June 24, 2022. I don’t even know how that’s a real year, but apparently it’s going to happen. Some people do 50 before 50 bucket lists, where they check off adventures. However, I’m a nerd and I’m making 50 zines about 50 women artists over the next year. I have a list of about 75 (so far) to pull from and I’m sure I’ll be finding more to make the choices each week even harder.

I am reading a book called Broad Strokes : 15 Women Who Made Art and Made History (in That Order) by Bridget Quinn and decided I would start with the women in her book. First up: Artemisia Gentileschi.

Selfies in the 1600s? Yes.

Self Portrait, Artemisia Gentileschi, 1630s, Palazzo Barberini, Rome
Self Portrait, Artemisia Gentileschi, 1630s, Palazzo Barberini, Rome

Artemisia’s father taught her to paint and she quickly outgrew him. She earned honors that were very unusual for women at the time — the fact that she had been taught to paint was almost unheard of. Her paintings were depictions of scenes from mythology, allegory, and the Bible. She was especially known for her paintings of women, which showed them with more strength and power than they were usually painted by men. She had the advantage of being able to use herself as a model and a number of her paintings were self-portraits.

Different Perspective

Susanna and the Elders, 1610, earliest of her surviving works, Schönborn Collection, Pommersfelden
Susanna and the Elders, 1610, earliest of her surviving works, Schönborn Collection, Pommersfelden
Judith Slaying Holofernes, 1614–1620, 199×162 cm, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
Judith Slaying Holofernes, 1614–1620, 199×162 cm, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

Her painting of Susanna shows the distress in the women’s face and body language. Many other paintings of this scene depict Susanna almost as if she were receptive to the attentions of the elders. Ick.

Her version of Judith is very powerful and graphic — many other painters of this era didn’t include any blood! Judith is clearly very powerful and not at all squeamish about her task.

Artemisia’s Story

Her personal life has trauma, so if you do read more about her, please be aware of that. I am purposely not including the specifics here.

I have also read the book Blood Water Paint — a novel in verse by Joy McCullough. It is quite excellent. I was in tears for Artemisia by the end, but also felt her strength. Despite the things that happened to her, she was a celebrated, successful artist, at a time when that was almost impossible for women.

The Zine

For my response to everything I learned about her, I created a one-page zine. The colors I chose came from her work and after some messy scribbled journaling about the things I learned, I started added the paint and marks in an intuitive abstract style. I topped off the background with some bits of gold leaf. I used my Canon Ivy printer to print some photos of her work and added some bits of text.

Short video flip-through of my zine, no sound

What’s Next

I think I’m going to continue follow the order of artists in the book mentioned above, so Judith Leyster is up next. She was working at about the same time as Artemisia, but was an artist of the Dutch Golden Age.

Global prehistory – what has Suzanne learned so far

My draft title for this post was “Modern Humans are Assholes.” I finished the Global Prehistory unit and I swear that every single article included something about the original artwork being lost (or nearly lost) because modern humans messed it up. Unfortunately, that was my biggest takeaway from this unit. I’m also not really feeling too kindly towards my contemporary humans during this pandemic, so you’ll have to excuse my pessism.

I do think it’s funny to say “prehistory” because….if something is before “history”…..isn’t it also history??? But as you probably know, prehistory simply means the time before written records. This particular overview looks at art made between 30,000 and 500 BCE.

(As a reminder, I’m following the AP Art History track on Khan Academy. The content comes originally from smARThistory.org and I find it easier to link to the information on their site.)

Not only are modern humans are destructive, we can be tricked by fakes and fall victim to confirmation bias. And of course, racism rears its ugly head in the stories about what historians have decided must be true. I was glad that this section took a global view of prehistory, as opposed to focusing on ancient western art.

While people can (and will) speculate about what certain paintings or sculptures signify, it is impossible to know for sure what anything means. I find it fascinating what historians and archeologists CAN discern, based on what they know from other objects they have found.

While I enjoyed all of this unit, my favorite artwork was the Tlatilco Figurines from Central Mexico. These small ceramic figurines date from around 1200-400 B.C.E. Most of them depict women in everyday activities and include a lot of humor. They are small and quite intricate. My favorite is this one of a woman kissing a dog:

Tlatilco figurine of a woman kissing a dog
Original photo can be found here: https://flic.kr/p/rkqJqE

I highly recommend doing an image search for Tlatilco figurines to see more figurines. It has occurred to me that I should be making an art journal page with some of these figurines as inspiration. If I do, I will come back and add it!

The next unit in this course is titled Ancient Mediterranean: 3500 B.C.E.-300 C.E. I’ll be back in two weeks with another update on what I’m learning from the past. I have a suspicion I still won’t be feeling too kindly towards modern humans.

Reference: Dr. Rex Koontz, “Tlatilco Figurines,” in Smarthistory, August 9, 2015, accessed February 1, 2021, https://smarthistory.org/tlatilco-figurines/.

Art History, Reconstructed

As Suzanne mentioned in her art history post, a lot of people get turned off when they hear the words Art History. I mean, it does conjure up images of survey classes where there are so many names and dates and slides it leaves you crossed eyed. I remember those classes and the hideous amount of dates you need to memorize- if you don’t REALLY LOVE art history it is not that fun.

Back story: I have a minor in Art History and have slept sat through many, many slide lectures. But, I will say this: once you get past intro level surveys, it does get more interesting. Specialist and topic specific classes are infinitely more inspiring. I had a focus on Islamic art and architecture, pre-Christian art and once took an entire class on Iznik pottery of the Ottoman Empire- riveting!

I feel fortunate in my fundamental art history education because it allowed me to understand huge chunks of world history at the same time. However, there are huge gaps in my art history knowledge simply because it is such a vast subject. Also, some subjects were either not offered, not widely talked about or just outright ignored in the field. This is where I’m headed.

The Obvious Choice

Women in the arts have always been sorely underrepresented, but I am going one further. There are quite a few woman who were extremely talented in their own right, yet lived in the shadow of their famous male husbands and partners. Lee Krasner and Frida Khalo are two well known examples, and I’m going to dig into that a bit more. It also ties in with a Big Idea I’ve had for quite a few years (decades really), but I’ll save that for another day. Here’s my short list so far:

  • Elizabeth Siddall
  • Gabriele Münter
  • Margaret Keane
  • Lee Miller
  • Elisabeth Vigee Le Brun
  • Judith Leyster
  • Jo Hopper
  • Elaine de Kooning
  • Tirzah Garwood
  • Elizabeth Catlett
  • Gwen Knight

And some seriously overlooked women that really should be in the Renaissance, Late Classical, Art Deco/Nouveau and Romantic canons:

  • Artemisia Gentileschi
  • Hannah Höch
  • Sofonisba Anguissola
  • Tamara de Lempicka
  • Sonia Delaunay
  • Margaret & Frances Macdonald
  • Elisabeth Sonrel

I’ll also be exploring some influential women in applied arts fields, like Gunta Stöltz who modernized weaving at the Bauhaus school’s weaving workshop. You know, real specific niche art history you can get lost in- my favorite!

I’m Still A Sculptor At Heart

Speaking of niche, next month is Black History Month and I’m going to share some things that I’ve already been researching- black women sculptors of the Harlem Renaissance. I’ll also talk about one of the most influential metal sculptors on my younger self, Mel Edwards.

Art History One-Oh-One

One of the ways in which I (Suzanne) feel disadvantaged as an artist is not having a solid grounding in art history and so part of my Make Your Own MFA program includes art history, from the prehistoric to the modern and contemporary. I can already hear some of you groaning as you remember bad art history classes, wondering why someone would subject themselves to something like this.

image of a blurred dictionary page with the text "art history 101" in script on it

Why

Well, for one thing, I’m stubborn, and I decided I needed to know this, so I’m going to do it. More seriously, though, I think it’s important to know the language, so to speak, and to have a grounding in where the things I’m working on have come from. I know I’m not making art out of thin air, everything I do is influenced by something else.

I also just really like learning things.

Guidelines

I’ve got some loose guidelines in mind as I approach my study of art history:

  • Broad overview of everything, from prehistoric times to contemporary
  • Learn about women (or those who identify as such) and not just the white men
  • Diversity: not just western art, and not just from a western perspective
  • I don’t have to be able to pass anexam, I just need to have been exposed to the ideas and art
  • If I find something really interesting, I will follow the idea to wherever it leads me
  • If I’m really really bored, I can move on to whatever is next

SmARThistory

As you can imagine, there are an infinite number of resources available online. I had decided to follow the art history curriculum from Smarthistory.org, when I discovered that Khan Academy had taken the Smarthistory curriculum and packaged it into a nicer format. So that’s what I’m using. I picked the AP Art History course, just because it made me feel fancy to do an AP class. Even though I’m nearly 50, and not in high school. Or a freshman in college.

I am finally through the first section — aptly called “Getting Started. ” It is an overview of terminology for both artmaking and art history. There’s also a section with an introduction to the 5 main religions of the world, presumably because a lot of the work that will be studied is going to be religious. Yay.

Hating Art History

One of the videos in the beginning is by Sarah Urist Green, in which she talks about why people hate art history. In her opinion, art history is complex and interesting, but in order to teach it, we end up simplifying it and take out all of the cool stuff. And most people give up before they get to the interesting bits or are disillusioned when they find out how much simplification they were fed. Or don’t want to believe the actual story because it doesn’t fit with the fantasy in their head. (Gee, sounds like regular not-art history, too…..)

The video is actually on YouTube, too, if you’d like to watch:

I am hopeful that the resources that are available through Khan Academy and Smarthistory.org as well as the independent work that I’m sure I’ll do as I try to follow up on the things that I find fascinating will help me find the cool stuff. I’ll try to share the most interesting bits here and I’m sure that the things I’m learning will make their way in to my own art practice.

Enjoying Art History

I’ll be honest, I started to get a bit bogged down in the section about the major world religions, but now that I’m ready to move on, I’m energized again. I hope I can keep that energy up and enjoy my trip through art history!

Have you ever taken an art history class? What historical periods interest you the most? Let me know in a comment or on Instagram if that’s where you came from!